Drafting and Editing


Typically when I write “The End” on a story, that is the beginning of the journey. Revisions and editing are a much longer, and to me, more difficult process than writing. Writing is a lot of fun! Editing? Not so much.

We each have our own methods and our own ways of doing things. I tend to get more granular as I write each draft. Ooops, but hold on. I really need to talk about how I define “draft” here, because it may be different than you think.

Draft Numbering

In ways my background as a computer nerd come to the surface in my draft numbering scheme. There are two or three components. There is the draft number and then the revision number and often a date-stamp.

I follow normal writing convention by calling my original rough draft “1st draft”. If I were really following the software model, this would be draft “0”.

I change the draft number when there are significant changes, usually end to end. This is typically rewriting chapters, deleting large blocks of text, adding chapters, adding large blocks of text, etc. Of course, as I said, as I go on it gets more granular, so I’m not adding or subtracting chapters at draft five! At that time, it is just a feeling that there have been significant changes since the last draft number.

I call a new revision after I got through end to end and make small corrections. That is at the word, phrase, sentence and perhaps paragraph level.

At some point if I go through the entire manuscript several times and call each a new revision, there may be enough changes to call it a new draft. So after Draft 4, Revision 6 I may say, “You know, this is significantly different than Draft 4. It’s time to call it a new draft.”

As I edit I often will “archive” my progress. This is simply taking the file at the end of the day and adding the date to it and put it on a different computer drive. This is in case something happens and the working draft is crunched I can always find a recent version.

One thing that I did not mention. I have one and only one file in the Universe labeled “working draft”. That copy is just what it sounds like, what I have open to do the editing. When I want to call it a draft or a new revision, I make a copy and then name it something like “wipbook-2nddraft-revision3”.

Drafting vs Editing vs Rewriting

I have used a few words almost interchangeably, but they have different meanings to me.

For me, “drafting” is going through looking for major changes. This is can be changing words, phrases or sentences, but usually implies larger scale, such as paragraphs, chunks of text, and chapters. It might be simple substitution, deleting, adding, changing order or completely rewriting. Notice how it goes along with what I call a draft? Of course, I can do what I call “drafting” but end up with a revision. What makes it “drafting” is that I am not “just” correcting, I am making changes that are larger scale.

“Editing” is closer to “correcting”. It is usually small scale, like words and sentences, though it can be larger scale, though typically not beyond a paragraph. Typical editing would be correcting typos, misspellings, wrong word usage, clumsy word order, unwanted repetition (words or ideas), etc. Editing from end to end creates a new revision, unless, as stated before, I have performed several revisions and I feel that there have been significant changes since the last draft number and so it is time to call it a new draft.

“Rewriting” is just what it sounds like. I typically don’t call it “rewriting” unless I sit down with a blank page and start typing. Sometimes I will put a few new lines into the document and write, sometimes in a separate document and then past it in. I might look at the existing text and occasionally copy parts I like in, or I might do it brand new from beginning to end.  Rewriting is usually larger scale, from a paragraph up to a chapter. The end result is not a new revision or draft, just part of the process of creating a new revision or draft. Unless I later find a mistake, rewriting is typically performed as part of creating the second draft, to a lessor extent the third draft sand maybe a little bit in the fourth draft.

Granularity – Examples of Drafts

The more I have done this, the better organized I am in drafting. Every work is different, with different needs, so nothing is set in stone, but below is a quick example of how it might go.

First draft – You know all of those rules you talk about when you write? Those go out the door for the first draft. This is purely to get the words on “paper”. OK, most of my first drafts have been posted on my blog, so I do try to make the writing at least OK, but there are tons of mistakes. This f=draft might have some flesh, but only really needs the bones of the story – basic plot, basic order, basic atmosphere, the main characters, etc.

I typically wait a while after my first draft, from two or three months for a few short stories to two or three years for larger works, like The Old Mill. I will read it once, doing as little correction as I can (slap my hand when I do) and then I sit and plan the next steps. Here is a post that was an in-between time.

Second draft – This is in ways the most important draft. I take the raw story and beat it into something that works. Sometimes there are minor tweaks of plot and such, sometimes chapters are added and deleted and reordered.  I am still not thinking of most writing rules here, I am just trying to make the story consistent, make it flow and all of those other things. I might add and subtract characters. I might even put in or develop subplots. I try to find ways to limit my data dumps. In other words, I put some meat on those bones (first draft) after making sure that the bones are the right ones and in the right place.

I put a couple of weeks between drafts before I pick it up again just to clear my head.

After the second draft, it all depends on where the work seems to be. I might add detail at this point, putting in descriptions. I try to make sure that the characters are three-dimensional and consistent. I try to clean it up. I shave down the data dumps even more. I make sure that the ideas and scenes flow smoothly and logically, even if the story itself skips and jumps. I try to make it more real.

Although I do this from the beginning, it is around the third or fourth draft that I really start looking at some of the writing style mistakes I make. “He did this and then he did this and he did this.” That is exaggerated, but I might have a few paragraphs that is all “He did this”. Nope, needs to be rewritten. “John heard a noise. He turned and say a creature.” Nope, needs to go – we don’t need the noise and sight filtered through John’s eyes! We need to hear and see. There are words I use too often, like “suddenly”. I do searches on those words and rewrite as many of them as I can find (this is usually done during the fourth or fifth draft).

It is this point that I start concentrating on all of those rules, hints and tricks we all read about. Yes, I try to do it from the beginning so that it is pretty clean by now, but I am often surprised at how much of the txt is still “amateurish”.  This is also the point where I go beyond the flow of the story and look at the flow of the actual words.

After each draft I do at least one revision run, going through and cleaning up typos and other obvious issues, before going on to the next draft. Around the fourth draft, most of my effort is more along the lines of revisions, but still keeping my eyes open for large scale issues and problems and still doing some rewrites.

Around the fifth draft it is mostly editing, but still consider it part of drafting.

At some point I then call it “done-unedited”.  I send it to a couple of proofreaders. After I incorporate their feedback, I do a couple of more editing runs, digging deep, and then call it the “finished draft”. This is what I use to create the ebook and paper back – I make a new copy of the file, “Book Master”, and use that copy for the books.

Editing Details and Tricks

After the major rewrites and large-scale drafting, I get to the editing part. I hate editing.

I have discovered a few issues with my editing. First, I know the story so miss quite a bit. Second, after a while I start to read it instead of edit it. Third, I grow bored. Over time I have come up with different ways to help.

One thing is search. I use search a lot. There are words that I often misuse. Search for it. There are typos I make all of the time. Search for it. There are mistakes I make in formatting (spaces, line feeds, etc.). Search for it. Odd names that are misspelled. Search for it. Sometimes there are other easy fixes. Put an oddball name into the dictionary so misspellings can be more easily caught. If you find a misspelling, search for that variation.

Next is going through the manuscript in reverse order. I do this chapter by chapter. I have noticed that I have more mistakes as I go on, including lazy writing. I get impatient at the end. I start reading instead of editing. So by doing the last chapter first, I can concentrate on it.

Actually, from the beginning I will usually go through each chapter at least twice, sometimes four or five times before moving on. Of course doing this I get tired and impatient, so at some point I do the same thing in reverse. Go through the last chapter five times in a row before moving to the second to the last.

I try not to do too much in a day, so I don’t get as tired of it. I also make sure I wait at least a week before going through after I finish a pass.

I read the entire manuscript out loud. This really helps. I will often use a pointer to point at words as I read them. I catch a ton of typos and misused words this way. I also find these clumsy phrases and sentences that I don’t notice when reading in my head. Repeated words stand out. By the time I call it “finished”, I may have read the manuscript out loud from front to back, and back to front, a dozen or more times.


So that is pretty much my editing style at this point. A lot of what I do I came up with to fix issues. I relied on two proofreaders for The Fireborn and missed literally hundreds of typos. I read it out loud (for the first time) when that fact was pointed out and was shocked to discover how many issues I had missed and my proofreaders had missed. So now that is part of my system. It is pretty much the same with everything. Sue Vincent read a draft of my two novellas and noticed how inconsistent I was with oddball names. She made the suggestion of adding those names to the dictionary. But I discovered that normal names were inconsistent, so I expanded my searches (i.e. which is: Brandon, Branden or Brandan).

I hope you got something out of this. Do you have any tricks that you use that I missed?


17 thoughts on “Drafting and Editing

  1. Prior...

    Hi T – reading this at this beach this morning (so glad to have Some Trent author tips as the waves lightly crash!☀️)
    And thanks for taking the time to share some of the ways you have honed your skills
    I like the three categories you have (draft rewrite and edit) and the tips of readi my aloud and backwards going thru and getting proofreaders …

    For me – I agree with what you said about being too close to the material to “see” certain things –
    And my worse hurdle is when I go to edit and fix a few typos – I then correct or REWRITE entire sections and change too much! So I have learned to nip that in the bud or things could perpetually be this working draft
    And I keep all drafts – which for me include any edits and rewrites – I just number them
    And sometimes I have a version I chop up and height light and I keep this separate and don’t need to save it for a long time so I add the words “toss later” which means nothing in that copy or draft needs to be saved
    Like this
    Wishing you a nice Sunday author Trent

    Liked by 1 person

    1. trentpmcd Post author

      I hope you are enjoying the beach! Even in the later stages I still occasionally rewrite, though, as you do, after so many drafts I start to try to reign in those rewrites. When I get deep and heavy into editing, I keep every single day’s worth of editing, and even offshoots that I end up not using. The same is true with the cover – I might have several dozens of versions of the cover before i finalize it. Some are totally out there, but others are just the slow, incremental changes as I create and finalize what goes out. Yeah, many hundreds of files to make a book ;)

      I hope your day is going well and that you have a great week ahead :)

      Liked by 1 person

  2. fakeflamenco

    Hi Trent, I agree reading aloud can catch a lot: pacing, dialogue, and changes in tone. I meet with other writers face to face every two weeks and exchange material. That makes editing a lot more fun! Is there a writers’ association in your city you might tap? -Rebbecca

    Liked by 2 people

    1. trentpmcd Post author

      I looked for a club in the vicinity a few years ago and couldn’t find anything. It is possible I missed it or something new has come up – always good to get live feedback from a disinterested party.

      Liked by 2 people

  3. Sagittarius Viking

    I like this explanation. I’m a non-linear thinker, and writer. I usually have something I want to tell in my head. I write down a list of ten important points of the story. I often struggle with what angle to tell my story from, and start writing the same story from 3-4 different points of views, in different documents, at the same time. Then I just go with the one I personally feel the most for. I do a lot of free writing, that I never show anyone. I’ve lived a pretty colorful life, and there’s stories I might consider publishing under a pseudonym. To be completely honest, that’s why I used the pseudonym Ms Zen in the beginning, I was thinking of publishing a VERY good story. LOL. A very great and useful post Trent! Thank you! Have a great weekend!

    Liked by 1 person

    1. trentpmcd Post author

      For the most part I am a non-linear thinker, so I’ve had to work hard to become methodical. This might be the reason why I have written books in my head my entire life but have only recently started writing them out ;) Interesting thing about Point of View in my current work is that the first draft was all in first person from the main character while I made the second draft in third person and from multiple people – of course, one person per chapter, but each chapter could be someone different. the main character gets the majority, of course, and two other characters get quite a few, but there are random POVs through out. Anyway, I hope I do see some of your fiction – lively can be good. Thanks! Have a great weekend!

      Liked by 1 person

  4. robertawrites235681907

    Interesting post, Trent. I always enjoy reading about how other people do things. I write a first bare bones draft and then I build on from there, going back a few times to add and change things. Then I do a read and make more changes and editions and then I send that draft to my developmental editor who comes back with her suggestions. I then do a fairly bit re-write after which I give the revised draft to my husband and mother to read and edit for me. After that it goes to a proof reader for final checking and then I send it to my publisher, who also does a read and edit. By the end of all of this, I never want to see this particular book again.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. trentpmcd Post author

      I see a couple of big differences – the first is you send it to a publisher, but since I self publish…. The other is the developmental editor. In ways that might be something I should use, just to be sure… My mom is usually in on the process starting the second or third draft. She does OK pointing out issues, but at that point she is too much “Mom” and not enough “editor” ;) She was an English teacher, is a poet and such so she is one of my proofreaders. And I agree, when it goes out, I never want to see it again… I had a really hard time taking up the manuscript of The Fireborn and doing that edit after it was publi8shed – I did not want to ever read it again! but I’m glad I did as there were hundreds of small typos and things.

      It is always interesting to see how others do it and I’ve gotten many of my best ideas about editing from other people here on WordPress.

      Liked by 1 person

      1. robertawrites235681907

        I am new to writing and I published my first book in 2016 (not long ago). Through the Nethergate is my first novel which is why I am using a developmental editor. I never studied creative writing or English as I am a chartered accountant. I believe you have to get your learning somewhere and I have chosen to get it by using a developmental editor. I must say that the feedback I had on both While the Bombs Fell and Through the Nethergate was incredibly helpful. My mom is so funny when she reads my stories, she takes it very seriously and starts poking holes in it before she is a paragraph in. I keep saying “read on, Mom, the answers are coming.” Happy Friday, Trent.

        Liked by 1 person

        1. trentpmcd Post author

          I’m also relatively new at writing. I mean, I played around with it most of my life, but it was 2010 when I sat down and started actually taking the time to write down all of the short stories in my head – I wrote about a dozen 3000 to 8000 word stories that year. I put out my first self-publish book of short stories in January of 2017 and the first novel, The Fireborn, later that year (the rough draft was finished in 2014). I majored in mathematics, so not English, and have worked in IT since then.

          Anyway, I can see a big benefit of the developmental editor. I have a million, “did I make the right choice here” type of questions that need to be answered early. I am going to try to rope my sister in on this one – she is better at those types of questions than my mom and is much more harsh on my writing, but hasn’t had time the last two books. But perhaps I do need “professional help”…

          Liked by 1 person


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